IoT is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of hardware (such as sensors), these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled. Let’s break that down:
First, IoT is about connectivity. All your things are connected through the internet. Things refer to any physical object that can be uniquely identified (by URI or Unique Resource Identifier) and that can send/receive data by connecting to a network. Examples are buildings, vehicles, smartphones, shampoo bottles, cameras, etc. They can be connected among themselves, with a central server, with a network of servers, with the cloud, or a mix of it all and more.
Second, IoT is about information and communication. Everything is sharing information to their designated endpoints either other things or servers. They are constantly sending information about status, actions, sensor data, and more. All of them with their unique ID attached, so that it is possible to know where the data came from.
And finally, IoT is about action and interaction. These last two concepts define the core of what IoT is: connection and information sharing. However, all that data isn’t generated just to be stored somewhere and forgotten. It has to be used for something. And that use can be automation: computers using the data to automatically (or even autonomously) make decisions and, for example, with the help of Machine Learning, act. And that usage can also be monitoring: letting people know the state of something or some process. The people may be the users of a product or the overseers of for example a production line.
Types of IoT
1. Consumer IoT - Primarily for everyday use.
2. Commercial IoT - Primarily used in the healthcare and transport industries.
3. Military Things (IoMT) - Primarily used for the application of IoT technologies in the military field.
12 Applications of IoT :
1. Smart Homes. One of the best and the most practical applications of IoT, smart homes really take both, convenience and home security, to the next level.
2. Smart City.
3. Self-driven Cars.
4. IoT Retail Shops.
7. Smart Grids.
8. Industrial Internet. 9. Integrated Drone Technology 10 10. Transferring Packet Energy 11 . 11. Military weapon setting 12. 12. collecting data environment for science and Future R&D
The Internet of Things, IOT is the network of physical objects that have internet connectivity, and the communications that happen between any one of these objects and other connected systems and devices. In short, IoT connects anything with an on/off switch to the internet or to each other. Examples of IoT in action include security systems, thermostats, electronic appliances, household lights, alarm clocks and more.
The complexity of IoT projects—incorporating sensors to servers, software to storage, integration to data analytics to communications—makes them challenging.
Major Components of IOT:
Things or Device
These are fitted with sensors and actuators. Sensors collect data from the environment and give to gateway where as actuators performs the action (as directed after processing of data).
The sensors give data to Gateway and here some kind of pre-processing of data is even done. It also acts as a level of security for the network and for the transmitted data.
The data after being collected is uploaded to cloud. Cloud in simple terms is basically a set of servers connected to internet 24*7.
The data after being received in the cloud processing is done . Various algorithms are applied here for proper analysis of data (techniques like Machine Learning etc are even applied).
User end application where user can monitor or control the data.
Types of Cloud:
Cloud Infrastructure can be used by general public.
Cloud Infrastructure to be used by specific organisation .
Cloud Infrastructure to be used by specific community of consumers from organisation who may be working together. Example.: Healthcare industry
Here two or more cloud infrastructures are implemented and there is a switching between resources as per demand and need.
problems for IoT solutions and how to prevent them.
Risk 1: Failure Of Implementation
Simply put, you may not be able to implement it into your business.
Maybe your production facility is situated in an area that does not have fast enough internet. Without a fast and reliable connection, it is not possible to have reliable communication between your things, much less continually send information to storage or analysis.
Maybe your objective requires many things to be done in small time frames. Preparing data and sending it over for example Wi-Fi is much slower than using a PLC or a circuit board. For most applications, the difference doesn’t matter. But if you need time precision and immediate action, you may have to reconsider where IoT will be used, if it will be used at all.
And, of course, maybe there is insufficient budget available. Say you have all the expertise you need, developed a well-thought plan of implementation and the prototype implementation works as expected. But then, when you estimate the budget for full implementation, you realize it is beyond your investment budget, and it would not be possible to do the implementation incrementally.
In order to meet the needs of present and future (which cannot be fully predicted), systems need to be flexible enough to evolve and adapt. Open integrated hardware and software platforms, and a real-time network that can scale with new technologies would be required to adapt to the changing requirements over time, making step 4 (Selection of tools) and 5 (Selection of platform) difficult (but certainly not impossible) to complete.
These are all possibilities that you have to consider when looking for an IoT solution. That is why you have to acquire the right IoT skills to know what works and what doesn’t when it comes to costs and effectiveness. If you do decide to go ahead, do what you can to do so slowly. If the costs are too great, remember: you are still in the project/prototype stage. Scraping it during the process of complete implementation would mean much more money lost. However, the only way to know whether it will work or not is trying.
Risk 2: Internet Failure
IoT brings yet another dependency into your business, alongside money, electricity, water, maybe even gas and compressed air: the internet.
You might argue that business nowadays is already dependent on the internet: they share files and user access through central servers, have online stores, customer support, websites, along with other things. However, whenever the internet is down, there are still things that can be done inside the business building: working on local files, continue production/manufacture, etc.
But, if, for example, your production lines depend on IoT technology in order to function, whenever the internet goes down, production will stop. Even if electricity is still running. You might have an emergency plan in place for these cases but bear in mind that, after becoming used to the automation for some time, we grow dependent on it.
Let’s go back to our example: without the internet, there would be no way to access the cloud storage containing data on the position of each item, much less any way to know where to put each item coming down the line. Production would have to be stopped while the problem is sorted out.
Internet stability is critical. Confirm that your internet provider can offer you fast and stable internet before considering IoT for your business. It is critical for its continuous work.
Risk 3: Security
Security, however, is the biggest problem. When your business starts to depend on the Internet, it develops another weakness: it can be invaded. That means something as simple as a DDoS attack can shut down production, or a well-planned attack can give unauthorized third parties access to all the data gathered by the sensors throughout the years or even your customer’s information.
Remember: nothing is perfect. You may invest a lot into making a very secure network and still get a breach. In order to prevent that, some companies invested in hiring hackers and security experts to “compete” with one another, with the hackers trying to get access to restricted data, while the security experts keep the system secure, preventing their attacks.
___________________ Compiler by Agustinus Manguntam .,MM ______________________